A strong emergency medical services (EMS) system is built from a network of skilled and knowledgeable emergency medical care providers who understand the complexities of patient care and the environment in which they work.Emergency Medical Care

Most prehospital provider training and education programs prepare individuals to work on the front line as emergency medical technicians (EMT) or paramedics (EMT-P). The continuum of care that begins with frontline prehospital care providers in the field also extends into the hospital and includes emergency department technicians, nurses, and respiratory therapists. Loma Linda University recognizes that few opportunities exist for these individuals with a dedication and commitment to emergency medical care to pursue educational advancement.

The Emergency Medical Care Program at Loma Linda University offers a bachelor of science degree to expand the clinical knowledge of prehospital care providers and offer them an educational foundation from which to pursue leadership career roles in emergency services systems.

At the EMC Program, our mission is "To provide education to develop, enhance, and advance opportunities of our students in the emergency professions."

Program objectives

Upon completion of the program, the EMC graduate should be qualified to:

  1. Demonstrate leadership skills through advanced and multilevel thinking, providing options and alternatives for the care of patients.
  2. Demonstrate leadership in the emergency medical care field by sharing the knowledge attained through the program with members of other professional disciplines.
  3. Develop and refine critical thinking skills to enhance the ability to analyze and develop the most effective means of caring for patients.
  4. Compare and contrast the different disciplines of prehospital health-care providers that contribute to emergency medical care.
  5. Differentiate among the different areas of a Level I trauma center and the significance each area of the hospital has in the care of a critical patient.
  6. Effectively modify practice within the discipline, using the knowledge learned in the program.

The degree

The bachelor of science (BS) degree in Emergency Medical Care Program (EMC) usually requires four years of college to complete. The EMC program is known as a "2+2" program, meaning students complete their first two years of college coursework at an accredited community college, four-year college, or university of their choosing. Students enter the EMC program during the fall term of their junior year and spend the next two years focusing on the upper division EMC core curriculum.

To be conferred the bachelor of science in Emergency Medical Care Program a student must complete all of the prerequisite and corequisite courses and all of the courses in the EMC core curriculum.

To be eligible for entry to the Emergency Medical Care Program, an applicant must:

  1. Submit a complete application packet, to include application form, personal statement, letters of recommendation, transcripts, and application fee
  2. Document current or prior certification as an EMT, paramedic, nurse (MICN), or respiratory therapist
  3. Complete the prerequisite coursework listed below
  4. Successfully complete a math competency and writing sample test
  5. Arrange for a meeting with an advisor by appointment.

EMC Core Curriculum

Prefix, Course Number, Course Title, (Number of Units)

EMMC 308 Pharmacology (3)
General overview of pharmacology, including pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and therapeutics of drugs. Basic definitions, sources of information, classification of drugs, and principles and mechanisms of drug actions. Emphasis on prehospital drug categories.

EMMC 314 ECG Interpretation (2)
Development of basic ECG interpretation skills. Focus on anatomy and physiology, underlying pathophysiology, basic rhythm recognition, and overview of related treatments. Special emphasis on skills needed by bed-side practitioner to differentiate between benign and life-threatening dysrhythmias.

EMMC 315 Cardiology (3)
Assists the healthcare provider to develop assessment skills and to increase knowledge of medical management of the patient with acute and chronic cardiovascular disorders. Focus on anatomy and physiology, underlying pathophysiology, advanced history taking and physical assessment, cardiovascular pharmacology, electrical modalities, cardiac diagnostic testing, and current research. Special emphasis on the emergency care of patients with myocardial infarction and trauma to the cardiovascular system. Assignment includes interaction with cardiac patients and observation of diagnostic studies in the clinical setting.

EMMC 316 12-Lead ECG Interpretation (2)
Designed for healthcare providers who are familiar with basic ECG monitoring and are seeking to learn principles of application and interpretation of the 12-lead system. Special emphasis on recognition of the acute myocardial infarction. Additional topics include identifying: axis deviation, acute ischemic conditions, electrolyte imbalances, bundle-branch block, and infarct impostors. Practical application of information to bedside care of cardiac patients, with emphasis on patient assessment, data collection, and use of the 12-lead to guide rapid intervention. Certificate issued upon successful completion of the course.

EMMC 325 Current Issues in Emergency Medical Services (2)
Seminar-style discussion regarding current issues and controversies in emergency medicine. May include topics such as prehospital use of thrombolytic therapy, managed care, primary-care advanced-scope paramedic practice, etc.

EMMC 331 Theories of Emergency Medical Services I (3)
Introduction to prehospital medical services. Roles and responsibilities of paramedics and EMTs. EMS systems design, constraints, and operating problems. EMS environment and scene issues. Medical-legal issues. History and current state of prehospital care and medical oversight.

EMMC 332 Theories of Emergency Medical Services II (3)
Investigation of the dimensions of emergency medical services. Influence of environment on oxygen delivery. Development of paradigms for EMS. Decision making in the constrained environment. Stress models and role theories. Discussion of EMS as sequential environments from public health to critical care.

EMMC 389 Junior Seminars (1)
Discusses issues of professionalism and career development in the whole-person context, effective application of written, oral, and electronic communication, development of writing and research skills, usage of computer resources.

EMMC 425 Instruction and Curriculum Design in Emergency Services (3)
Methods of effective instruction and curriculum design for adult-learners. Discussion of classroom management techniques and instructional presentation in community education, in-service and continuing education, college classroom, clinical teaching, conferences and individual guidance. Curriculum design theories applied to development of instructional units and objectives, evaluation procedures and assessment tools. Introduction to designing a learning experience, selecting appropriate technology, developing a learner-centered handout/syllabus, and cultivating respect for diversity in learning.

EMMC 435 Disasters, WMD, and Terrorism (3)
Introduction to EMS response involving large-scale natural disasters and weapons of mass destruction (WMD). Exploration of prehospital and hospital treatment. Evaluation of current issues facing EMS personnel. Crisis and consequence management, theories of terrorism response, and state and federal resources. Discussion of interagency roles, overview of social and psychological aspects, policy development and the media, comparison of response protocols of disaster versus terrorist incidents.

EMMC 436 Trauma and Surgical Care (2)
Emergency evaluation, assessment, and care of the trauma patient. Prehospital resuscitation, stabilization, and rapid transport. Overview of traumatic injuries, multi-system trauma, surgical management and care of the trauma patient. Principles of care of the patient after stabilization and surgery. Discussion of kinematics, emerging trends in trauma care, trauma centers, and injury prevention programs.

EMMC 445 Perinatal and Pediatric Emergencies (3)
Emergent evaluation and care of the perinatal and pediatric patient. Cardiac, gastrointestinal, hematologic, renal, and metabolic conditions and treatment. Discussion of appropriate versus inappropriate child development and behavior including developmental stages, temperaments, feeding disorders, sleep disorders, mental retardation, and attention deficit. Psychosocial aspects pediatric, child, and adolescent psychiatric disorders.

EMMC 446 Physical Diagnosis (2)
Systematic review of assessment techniques utilized in patient assessment. Emphasis on assessment of major body systems. Overview of physical exam techniques and interpretation of findings. Lecture, reading, and discussion of case studies.

EMMC 447 Geriatrics and Aging (3)
The course will provide a forum for discussing current trends in aging and identifying the needs of an older population; discussion of psychological and social changes in the older adult, the physiologic process of aging and medical considerations unique to age; management of geriatric trauma, medical emergencies, and the impact of chronic diseases; establishing a social response to aging and viable health care delivery models for older adults.

EMMC 448 Advanced Physical Diagnosis and Critical Care (3)
Advanced assessment techniques utilized in management of critical care patient. Emphasis on interpretation of laboratory tests, chest radiographs, arterial blood gases, and other tests used to evaluate the patient. Theories of mechanical ventilation and oxygen therapy. Administration of aerosol treatments, gases and gas mixtures. Operation of transport ventilators and intravenous pumps and infusion devices.

EMMC 451 Health Care Management for Prehospital Providers (2)
Basic principles of management and how they relate to EMS systems. Federal, state, and local authority for EMS delivery and services, resources for and constraints to EMS systems, relationship to and impact on public safety and healthcare delivery systems, interface of public and private organizations, current and future issues.

EMMC 452 Seminars in EMS Management I (2)
Application of management theories to EMS management and practice. Public/private sector integration, public/media relations, government relations, stress management, management/leadership skill development, decision-making, and performance improvement.

EMMC 453 Seminars in EMS Management II (2)
Further application of management theories to EMS management and practice. The quality management process and its relationship to continuous learning, promoting organizational/system change, evaluating effectiveness of performance improvement projects, strategic planning, integration of EMS with public safety and public health.

EMMC 464 Ethics and Leadership for Emergency Services (2)
Examines the theory and conceptual framework to view and practice ethical leadership as a collective enterprise. Exploration of emerging paradigms of leadership. Clarify and contrast differing approaches to leadership and leadership development. Compare and contrast the situational approach of the processes of administration, management, and leadership. Learner-designated activities are utilized to develop a personal philosophy of leadership, and assess individual characteristics and relate those strengths to a leadership situation.

EMMC 471 Senior Project I (2)
Students develop, implement, and evaluate project for in-depth experience in area of choice. Projects may include research, community projects, and/or education, management, or clinical affiliations. Students work under direct supervision of assigned faculty mentor.

EMMC 472 Senior Project II (2)
Continuation of project developed under Senior Project I

EMMC 484 Legal Issues in Health Care (2)
Introduction to the legal system as it pertains to EMS providers. Concepts of malpractice, litigation, consent, and refusal or medical treatment, advanced directives, and patient confidentiality. Employment issues including discrimination and sexual harassment are discussed. The development of health and safety programs per OSHA regulations, risk management, legal issues in vehicle operations and equipment, and EMS and law enforcement interactions are addressed.

EMMC 489 Senior Seminars (1)
Discussion of issues of professionalism, portfolio development and refinement, short and long-term goal setting, development of resume/curriculum vitae.

AHCJ 305 Infectious Disease and the Health Care Provider (1)

Current issues related to infectious disease, with a special emphasis on principles of epidemiology and etiology of HIV/AIDS. Discussion of disease pathology and modes of transmission compared with hepatitis, tuberculosis, and influenza. Development of ethical response to psychosocial, economic, and legal concerns. Strategies and programs for education, prevention, and identification of resources. Impact on the health care worker, risk factors and precautions for blood-borne pathogens, HIV, hepatitis, and tuberculosis.

AHCJ 324 Psychosocial Models and Interventions (2)
Orientation to major models in psychology and how they relate to medical care. Development of a psychological model for interpretation of needs of the person in crisis. Understanding the roles of psychiatrists, psychologists, social workers, and family therapists. Suicide intervention. Critical-incident debriefing. Support factors in providing temporary, adequate psychological care for all involved in medical crisis.

AHCJ 328 Portfolio Practicum I (1)
SAHP goals for graduates introduced. Students demonstrate progression towards effective communication, teamwork, support of diversity, ethical behavior, appreciation of human worth, balanced work-rest-leisure within a spiritual atmosphere, and commitment to long-term personal and professional growth.

AHCJ 402 Pathology I (4)
Fundamental mechanisms of disease, including cell injury, inflammation, repair, regeneration, and fibrosis; vascular, cardiac, respiratory, gastrointestinal, hepatobiliary, urinary, reproductive, endocrine, and integumentary pathologies.

AHCJ 403 Pathology II (3)
Fundamental mechanisms of disease, including the central and peripheral nervous systems; bone and joint, skeletal muscle, developmental, genetic, infectious, parasitic pathologies, and neoplasia. Additional requirement of two autopsy viewings and written report.

AHCJ 471 Statistics and Research for Health Professionals I (3) Presents statistical methods relative to research design for health professionals, with introduction to SPSS statistical package for computer data analysis. Discusses philosophical approaches to scientific inquiry, range of research designs, roles of variables, and ethics.

AHCJ 472 Statistics and Research for Health Professionals II (3) Advanced conceptual frameworks, data analyses, and techniques in quantitative and qualitative research. Emphasizes process for obtaining and using evidence-based research.  Prerequisite: AHCJ 471.

AHCJ 498 Portfolio II (1)
Development of portfolio that illustrates the potential graduate's ability to meet the goals set by the SAHP for graduates of baccalaureate and master's degree programs.

RELE 457 Christian Ethics and Health Care (2)
Ethical issues in modern medicine and related fields from the perspective of Christian thought and practice.

RELR 427 Crisis Counseling (2)
Crisis phenomena, current crisis theory, a Christian model of crisis care, and the dynamics and practices of crisis care.

RELT 423 Loma Linda Perspectives (2)
History and philosophy of Loma Linda University as a Christian health-sciences institution that fosters human wholeness.

RELT 440 World Religions (2)
Surveys the origins, beliefs, and contemporary practices of the world's major religious systems. Gives attention to the interaction between specific religions and their cultures; and to similarities, differences, and potential for understanding among the religions.